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Control Flys with Fly Parasites, the natural enemy
- Remove manure regularly.
HOW FLY PARASITES PREDATORS WORK
House flies and stable flies are not only a nuisance on livestock and poultry farms, but they also transport disease-causing organisms. Certain native parasitic wasps are used as biological control agents of fly populations, reducing use of insecticides while saving farmers time and money. Our fly parasite predators are a combination of 3 different species: Spalangia cameroni, Muscidifurax zaraptor and Muscidifurax raptorellus. Using all three different species will reduce the fly population more effectively. Parasitic wasps lay their eggs inside fly pupae and the developing flies provide food from within for the young wasps. In addition, adult parasites "host feed" by drawing fluid from fly pupae, and thus prevent the fly from fully developing. They are very effective against the housefly, biting stable flies, garbage flies, and the lesser housefly, which comprise 95 percent of the flies in manure accumulations. They also parasitize the other 5 percent of flies, such as horn flies, flesh flies, face flies and false stable flies, but control is less complete on those flies which complete their life cycle widely dispersed in the pasture. The parasitic wasps only attack flies and will not bite, sting, swarm or bother anything else. They are nocturnal and are rarely seen during the day. Fly parasites operate to a depth of 8 inches in manure, homing in with their biological radar on fly larvae that are about to pupate.
Fly parasites are tiny wasps that kill fly pupae. They attack only fly pupae in manure and are so small (similar in size to gnats) they go unnoticed by humans and livestock. Ranchers, horse and cattle owners make frequent releases of small numbers of these beneficial wasps to augment their existing populations of beneficials. The wasp females seek out fly pupae, kill them, and then lay eggs within the dead pupae. These eggs hatch and mature into a new generation of beneficial parasitic wasps. Fly parasites are useful for the control of house flies, stable flies, blowflies, and many other fly species. They cannot sting nor bite humans or animals.
The parasitic wasps (also known as parasitoids) target only flies in their pupal stage, in which a layer of skin remaining from the fly's larval stage hardens and forms a protective case known as a puparium. When the wasp finds a pupa in soil or litter, she inserts her stinger and withdraws it, drawing blood and paralyzing the pupa. After she ingests some blood, she might allow the stinger less male to feed. If the sting doesn't eventually kill the pupa, the feeding will. If the female wasp decides the pupa would make a suitable host for her progeny, she inserts one egg into the air space under the puparium. The egg hatches after 1 day, and the larva feeds on body fluids and organs for 2 to 4 weeks. Eventually, the wasp chews its way out of the dead host's puparium and flies away as an adult.
Your insects arrive in a bag as parasitized pupae in a sawdust medium. The pupae are at various stages of development. Store at room temperature away from dogs and ants. Check for hatching over the next day or two by holding the bag up to a light source. When the first gnat-like parasites appear inside the bag it's time for application. Once dispersed, hatching will continue over the next week.
The parasites are nocturnal, thus the optimal release time is dusk. Apply the parasites around the edges of "hot spots" areas where manure and urine are accumulated - where flies are crawling and breeding. Scratch a 1/2" hole in the ground with your heel, drop in a tablespoon of the sawdust and pupae mixture, and cover the hole with dirt, manure, or straw. Repeat this process every 10-20 feet until the package contents are gone. Use a little extra in problem "hot spots".
|Buglogical has designed a Fly Control Program using regular releases of fly parasites.
First, use regular releases of fly parasites based upon the prescriptions to the right.
Second, use beneficial nematodes once or twice a year to treat manure piles or any areas where fly larvae populations may be abundant.
Good sanitation is the foundation of any successful fly control program. In most cases, removing breeding material is the most feasible means of breaking the fly life cycle. Corrals, run-in sheds and barns should be designed to facilitate the rapid and efficient removal of manure and other fly-breeding materials. Feeders should be constructed to minimize waste and prevent manure and feed from accumulating beneath them. Fly breeding materials should be removed and disposed of at least weekly. Large round hay bales should be stored on a well-drained site. Sanitation should be completed if fly breeding is to be minimized. Areas commonly missed in clean-up include around fence posts, outside and under fences, feeders or hay racks, corners in barns and stalls, around silos or other feed storage areas, and areas around water sources. Manure and other fly breeding materials are most easily disposed of by spreading them thinly on pasture or cropland. Manure can also be stock-piled in one place and composted to reduce fly breeding problems. However, to prevent flies from developing in the outer layers, cover the waste with plastic. Fly development can be inhibited if manure and other fly breeding materials are kept dry. Corral areas should be designed to promote adequate drainage and eliminate wet spots where fly breeding is more likely to occur. Similarly, good drainage away from manure stockpiles will also promote drying and help reduce fly breeding. Automatic waterers should be maintained properly to prevent leaks. In addition to sanitation, more traditional methods of fly control should not be ignored when instituting a fly control program. Screening is an excellent way to keep flies out of areas, such as feed rooms, tack rooms and box stalls. Fans directing a blast downward and outward above doors will help prevent flies from entering barns. If only a few flies are present, sticky fly tapes can be used as a remedial measure. Other means of non-chemical control are less effective. For example, electric fly zappers are of limited value and are usually not effective in areas where flies are actively breeding. The same is true for the numerous fly jugs and traps available. These devices may trap a few flies, but are of little value in reducing total fly populations where active breeding is taking place.
Biological control is another non-chemical method promoted for house fly and stable fly control. Several species of parasitic wasps may be purchased to develop a good fly control program. With this method, the female wasps deposit their eggs in the fly pupae and the wasp larvae then kill and consume the developing fly. Which will provide long-term fly control.
Biological fly control methods
Biological Control With fly parasite predators.
Fly parasites predators are among the most important of these natural biocontrol agents in reducing the nasty fly population. The Fly parasites are like "smart bombs"-they live only to find and kill fly pupae. Although the female parasitoid has a stinger, the only purpose she can use it for is to kill flies. When she finds a fly pupa, she stings and feeds on it. This kills the fly. She then uses her stinger to lay an egg inside the pupa. The egg hatches, and the parasitoid larva feeds on the dead fly. The young adult parasitoid then chews its way out of the fly's pupal case and searches for new pupae to kill. Development from egg to adult parasitoid is completed in about 3 weeks.
Evolution has led to a natural balance in which the parasitoid and the fly coexist. If we think of them as competitors in a race that happens each summer, the fly has certain advantages that help it to win unless we intercede. For example, the fly develops twice as fast from egg to adult, lives longer, and lays more eggs than fly parasite predators. As fly populations begin to grow in late May and early June, it is best to apply every two or three weeks another application of fly parasite predators.
The parasitoid also lags behind the fly in developing resistance to insecticides. Many insecticide treatments for flies therefore have the undesirable side effect of killing large numbers of parasitoids. Each subsequent insecticide treatment kills more beneficial insects and creates conditions that require repetitive treatments to keep flies in check.
Parasitoid populations can be conserved by using insecticides that are compatible with these important biocontrol agents. Baits and pyrethrin space sprays are good examples of compatible insecticides. Residual premise sprays are highly toxic to parasitoids and should be used only as a last resort.
Fly Parasites Control Flies in Horse Facilities
Fly parasites are naturally occurring enemy of all manure breeding pest flies. However, they are usually not found in a large enough population to control an aggressive fly population. During the
fly season these parasitic wasps must be replenished about once a month. They are simply not able to multiply in sufficient numbers to control the vast number of flies usually present around horse stable
areas. One release of the fly parasites can temporarily reduce the population of lies. Fly parasites will travel up to 80 yards to find a food source (fly pupae) so keep that in mind as you are distributing them around the edges of “hot spots” – areas where manure and urine are accumulated and thus where flies are crawling and breeding. Fly parasites do not bite or sting humans or other animals and are so tiny that they go largely unnoticed. These wasps are harmless to animals and people so that they are a safe, non-toxic means of biological control both stable and house flies. Fly parasites are another tool that should be considered when fighting the battle against flies on horse facilities